The fire direct property damage has gone up significantly with the development of industrialization and urbanization since the 1950’s in China. The number of casualties of fire has come down since the 1980’s while the mass casualties fire was significant. China governments at all levels, departments of fire protection, and the whole society have made great efforts to promote fire science research and its applications. The fire situation becomes relative stable in recent years. At present, the strength on fire research in China mainly includes the four fire research institutes of the Ministry of Public Security, the state key laboratory of fire science, fire enterprises and other fire research institutes. The researches have been carried out on fire detecting & alarming and fire suppression, fire resistance performance of constructions and fire prevention technology, fire modeling technology and performance-based fire safety design, fire protection on urban layout and fire fighting & rescue, technology of fire protection standardization, fire dynamics and fundamentals of fire protection since 1990. Emphasis has been put on the technology of fire prevention and fire-fighting rescue for high-rise building, underground building and large space building, and technology of prevention and control of urban fire and severe chemical disaster. In the future 5 years, the fire research work will be developed on theory of fire dynamic and fire risk, evaluation on urban area fire risk and capability of fire protection, techniques of new type fire facilities and engineering application, modernization of fire equipment, techniques of assessment and design on fire resistant of construction configuration, human behavior in fire, establishment and improvement of fire database, economics of fire protection and performance-based fire safety engineering.