Fires in industry impinge on the s a f e t y of workers, those living in the vicinity of the installation and on the environment. Though its control of industrial safety in the United Kingdom, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) encounters a wide variety of fire problems. This paper examines the scope and magnitude of the problem and, by reference to examples from HSE’s recent work, illustrates the wide range of situations which can occur. Methods for identification of the hazard are examined and the tools which can be used for its quantification are detailed. Reference is made to experiment and modeling of varying complexity. Particular attention is paid to the requirements of HSE. Finally suggestions are made for the most promising lines of research and the way in which safety standards can be maintained and developed in industry.